The influence of cold winter weather and low temperatures on the properties of the Paint prior to, during and after application and the importance of temperature when using coatings.
Importantly, it is wise to keep the season and the weather in mind and to be aware of the air as well as the product temperature when using any paint product - particularly when it is to be used externally.
The strong influence of temperature is very important to consider for all chemical reactions and particularly when say for instance when developing conventional, non-digital photographs, using two (2) pack, chemically reactive paint/coating products and Portland cement bound materials such as pre-mixed concrete and mortars.
Temperature substantially influences Ability's the Paint surface coating product. the Paint is a chemically reactive, two (2) pack but convenient to prepare one (1) step preparation coating product.
the Paint is supplied as a formulated easy-to-use powder (containing 18 material components including the colouring pigments). For use this powder is to be thoroughly power mixed into the recommended proportion of clean drinkable water which is the reactive 'hardener' for the Paint and not intended as an evaporating solvent.
Ability's the Paint is recommended for use only between the air temperatures of 14°C to 29°C. However, if the temperature on the day of application is expected to be greater than 29°C, the Paint mixed with a suitable percentage of ice water, may be applied early in the morning during the coolest part of the day.
Alternatively, in cold weather when the air temperature drops to below 14°C the Paint powder product can be stored inside at temperatures around 23°C (not outside all night in the contractor’s truck) and prepared into a liquid paint by mixing it into warm rather than cold tap water.
The product, like concrete and the growing of most plant crops such as corn, is prepared and works best at 23°C ( 72°F).
Activation per period
When the Paint powder is thoroughly mixed into the correct proportion of water to a paintable liquid, with no more water than the recommended/stated low amount, the Paint is required to activate and be left alone for a time, ie for the two (2) components - powder and water allowed to react chemically - prior to a short re-mixing time and the completely prepared liquid paint being brushed or otherwise suitably applied to the surface to be coated.
This relatively short activation time is required for the mixed liquid coating to reach an ideal liquid consistency, ie not too thin (and not too thick) in terms of viscosity - for easy and uniform application. This time should vary slightly according to the liquid’s temperature.
At the IDEAL air and material temperature of 23°C (72°F) the activation period for the mixed liquid material is only about 20 minutes approximately.
At lower temperatures than this ideal figure of 23°C, the required chemical reaction of the mixed liquid requires MORE time to activate and reach its ideal paintable consistency.
Increased theoretical activation time required:
The INCREASED time required for ideal activation is proportionally compounded as the temperature is reduced.
At between 8°C to 13°C - At least double again (ie about 2 to 3 hours).
Temperature of the mixed liquid:
It is important to note that the temperature referred to is the temperature of the mixed LIQUID prepared paint - NOT so much the temperature of the air. The air temperature does influence the temperature of the mixed liquid - as does the temperature of both components - the WATER and the POWDER - so these aspects should be taken into consideration.
Avoiding application delays in cold weather - due to longer activation times required:
To avoid lengthy activation times required when the temperature of the liquid is at these relatively low temperature levels - to reach an ideal liquid consistency for ideal application - the following procedures may be adopted:
• Add and mix the product powder to water in an interior (INSIDE) warm location - away from cold air outside. Let the mixed liquid activate INSIDE as well - before re-mixing it and taking it outside for use.
Increase the temperature of the WATER - for example by adding a percentage of hot water to cold tap water prior to mixing the powder into it.
Keep the powder warm - by storing it say in a warm room rather than overnight outside in a motor vehicle - prior to use.
As stated, the ideal temperature for mixing the powder into water and activation of the resultant liquid product is 23°C (Refer to the important document called the Paint Applicators Booklet - copies of which are readily available upon request).
Therefore, helpful procedures as suggested above carried out to achieve this ideal temperature or temperatures close to it (say 19°C to 25°C) will assist you to speed up the work.
The use of a thermometer may also assist you to determine the actual temperature of the two (2) components and the mixed liquid paint.
Achieving an ideal liquid consistency - to avoid possible problems:
When the powder is added to and mixed into the water the chemical reaction starts immediately. However, it is not completed then! It takes some time at a particular temperature to reach the stage for the mixed liquid to come to an ideal consistency for painting purposes.
At 23°C this activation time after mixing all the powder into the water is about 20 minutes.
At temperatures lower than 23°C the activation procedure, should take a bit longer to activate and at higher temperatures a little shorter. In temperatures less than 23°C if this extra time for longer activation is not taken into consideration, the liquid consistency-viscosity may be too low, ie too ‘thin’ and 'runny'.
If used without more time being allowed for activation the low viscosity liquid product may cause problems with the Paint application procedures and the results obtained.
These may include:
• some difficulty in obtaining an adequate film/coating build or thickness - for each of the recommended minimum two (2) coats or layers to ensure the high durability and protective properties that this coating product offers
• 'dripping' down or 'runs' when applied to vertical surfaces - thus possibly preventing a ‘nice’ uniform application - even with the highly recommended minimum two (2) coats.
• apparent differences in the perceived final colour achieved - due to different film thicknesses and textures in different areas, ie a less-than-uniform consistent application.
• less than the normal exceptionally high adhesion properties that this product offers.
• Less than the almost perfect protective and resistance properties that this exceptionally long lasting surface coating product features, ie less:
- weathering resistance
- resistance to wind driven rain
- chemical resistance eg salt, salty air resistance, in ground sulphates etc
- very high and low temperature, fire and flame spread resistance (fire retardancy)
- ferrous (iron and steel) metal rusting, corrosion resistance especially steel reinforcement in concrete over which the Paint may have been applied to protect both the steel from rusting and the concrete from weathering and erosion to prevent its failure
• Lower thermal and acoustic insulation properties
• Lower than the very high wear and abrasion resistance the product offers* when used on floors, pavements, stairs, steps and ramps.
Mixing the powder product thoroughly into clean water and allowing it to activate for an adequate period of time related to the temperature of the resultant mixed liquid are important procedures. If adopted these procedures will result in a painting consistency that is ideal for potentially obtaining uniform, consistent application - and thus achieving excellent, high performing and good looking results.
Highest resistance to wear:
* When the highest abrasion and wear resistance is required it is advisable to prepare all surfaces including new/old concrete and asphalt to a condition suitable for painting. The best and easiest method involves the correct use of a minimum 3000 psi pressure water blasting machine.
After water blasting to prepare the surface to be painted for painting - to make it firm, sound sound, clean and damp - allow the area to partially dry out to a uniform dampness and apply preferably three (3) coats - each coat of 300mm thickness, ie a coverage of 3m2 / litre / coat. Additional coats after the first may be applied as soon as the previous coat has set or ‘touch’ dried.
One (1) more coat of the Paint applied over the usual two (2) is estimated to increase the product's already very high resistance to wear by about 67% and costs little extra.
This information also applies for Ability’s X55 Hi-Seal paint and Durosheen® Semi-Gloss paint products.